The Influence of Vanadium on Ferrite and Bainite Formation in a Medium Carbon Steel


The influence of vanadium additions on transformation kinetics has been investigated in a medium carbon forging steel. Using dilatometry to track transformation during continuous cooling or isothermal transformation, the impact of vanadium on both ferrite-pearlite and bainite has been quantified. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography have been used to establish whether vanadium was present in solid solution, or as clusters and precipitates. The results show that vanadium in solid solution has a pronounced retarding influence on ferrite-pearlite formation and that, unlike in the case of niobium, this effect can be exploited even during relatively slow cooling. The influence on bainite transformation was found to depend on temperature; an explanation in terms of the effect of vanadium on heterogeneous nucleation is tentatively proposed.


T. Sourmail (1), C. Garcia-Mateo (2), F. G. Caballero (2), S. Cazottes (3), T. Epicier (3), F. Danoix (4) and D. Milbourn (5)


1. Asco Industries Research (CREAS), Hagondange, France
2. Department of Physical MetallurgyNational Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
3. Univ. Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS, CNRS UMR 5510, University Claude Bernard Lyon I, Villeurbanne, France
4. Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS, Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Rouen, France
5. Vanitec Ltd.Tunbridge Wells, UK

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Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 48, no. 9, 2017, pp. 3985-3996.