Development of Ultra-high Vanadium Wear Resistant Cold Work Tool Steels


The wear resistance of cold work tool steels is highly dependent on their hardness and on the composition, size and volume fraction of the primary carbides present in their microstructure. Vanadium carbide is one of the hardest carbides commonly present in tool steels, and it has been used with great advantage to enhance the wear resistance of a number of particle metallurgy (PM) tool steels, such as AISI A-II. Additional work has been done to develop a number of PM tool steels with significantly greater volume fractions of vanadium carbide to further enhance the wear resistance and performance of these materials. The wear resistance of these ultra-high vanadium tool steels, which contain as much as 32 volume percent of vanadium carbide, is shown to notably exceed those of presently available tool steels. This paper discusses the development and properties of the ultra-high vanadium steels.


vanadium PM tool steel, vanadium carbide, wear resistance, abrasive wear, tempered.


E. Stasko, K. E. Pinnow and W. B. Eisen


Crucible Research Center, Crucible Materials Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15205-1022


dvances in Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Vol. 5, Washington, DC, USA, 16-21 June 1996, pp.17.179-17.188 (Vanitec Publication - V0199)