Comparative Analysis for Various Redox Flow Batteries Chemistries Using a Cost Performance Model


The total energy storage system cost is determined by means of a robust performance-based cost model for multiple flow battery chemistries. Systems aspects such as shunt current losses, pumping losses and various flow patterns through electrodes are accounted for. The system cost minimizing objective function determines stack design by optimizing the state of charge operating range, along with current density and current-normalized flow. The model cost estimates are validated using 2-kW stack performance data for the same size electrodes and operating conditions. Using our validated tool, it has been demonstrated that an optimized all-vanadium system has an estimated system cost of < $350 kWh-1 for 4-h application. With an anticipated decrease in component costs facilitated by economies of scale from larger production volumes, coupled with performance improvements enabled by technology development, the system cost is expected to decrease to 160 kWh-1 for a 4-h application, and to $100 kWh-1 for a 10-h application. This tool has been shared with the redox flow battery community to enable cost estimation using their stack data and guide future direction.


vanadium redox flow batteries, cost, performance, flow, interdigitated, energy, power


Alasdair Crawford, et. al.


Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA

External Link:

External Link


Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 293, 2015, pp. 388–399.

PDF Preview:

Paper Preview