Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries


A cost model is developed for all vanadium and iron–vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling is done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge and operating conditions. This is supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio and flow frame channel dimensions are adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates are obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, near-term and optimistic scenarios. The most cost-effective chemistries with optimum operating conditions for power or energy intensive applications are determined, providing a roadmap for battery management systems development for redox flow batteries. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries are identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guide suitability of various chemistries for different applications.


Redox flow; Efficiency; Felt electrode; Bipolar plate; Separator; Flow frame


Vilayanur Viswanathan, et. al.


Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352, USA

External Link:

External Link


Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 247, 2014, pp. 1040–1051

PDF Preview:

Paper Preview