The Use of Vanadium


Most of the vanadium produced is consumed by the steel industry and this consumption has increased significantly in recent years. The properties of vanadium containing steels are largely governed by the interactions, which take place between vanadium, nitrogen and carbon and the ways in which these interactions affect both precipitation and the transformation from austenite to ferrite. Vanadium containing steels tend to be relatively easy to continuously cast, require low reheating temperatures, can be rolled with no significant increase in rolling load and their properties are relatively insensitive to finish rolling temperature. Vanadium containing steels obtain their properties from a combination of fine grain size and precipitation strengthening, the presence of vanadium promoting both strong, tough, intra-granular ferrite as well as precipitation of vanadium carbides and nitride. Vanadium containing steels have good weldability and the presence of vanadium can improve the heat affected zone toughness.


Vanadium high strength low alloy steels, vanadium carbonitride, hot ductility, hot rolling, recrystallization controlled rolling, grain size, precipitation strengthening, intra-granular ferrite, weldability.


P. S. Mitchell


VANITEC, Winterton House, High Street, Westerham, Kent, TN16 1AQ, England


he Use of Vanadium in Steel - Proceedings of the Vanitec Symposium, Beijing, China, Oct. 2001, pp.1-25

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