Steel & Chemical Plant
Vanadium is an essential alloying element in a number of steels and cast irons used for rolls in steel mills. For example in cast iron rolls used for hot rolling of steel plate, in forged steel back up rolls of four high mills and in the work rolls of hot strip mills.
Vanadium steels have also been used in tubes in chemical plant and oil refineries such as pressure vessels in which vanadium enables the structure and properties of plates to be maintained during fabrication by hot forming.
Vanadium steels are also preferred for bends and manifolds in high strength pipelines for the same reason, and are also frequently used for forged valves because they can be normalised after forging to give high strength without distortion.